Isnin, 15 Ogos 2011



        Crayfish, crawfish, or crawdads – members of the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea – are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobster, to which they are related. They breathe through feather-like gills and are found in bodies of water that do not freeze to the bottom; they are also mostly found in brooks and streams where there is fresh water running, and which have shelter against predators. Most crayfish cannot tolerate polluted water. Crayfish feed on living and dead animals and plants.
In Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, the term crayfish or cray generally refers to a saltwater spiny lobster of the genus Jasus that is indigenous to much of southern Oceania.The name "crayfish" comes from the Old French. Some kinds of crayfish are known locally as lobster, crawdads, mudbugs, and yabbies. In the Eastern United States, "crayfish" is more common in the north, while "crawdad" is heard more in central and western regions, and "crawfish" further south, although there are considerable overlaps. Some crayfish suffer from a disease called crayfish plague. This is caused by the water mould. Species of the genus Astacus are particularly susceptible to infection, allowing the more resistant signal crayfish to invade parts of Europe. Crayfish plague is not indigenous to Europe, rather it was brought there when North American species of crayfish were introduced.

Isnin, 8 Ogos 2011

characteristics of frog and crab~

        A frog is an amphibious animal. They belong to the order Anura.
Frogs can live on land and in fresh water. Frogs cannot survive in salt water. They hatch as tadpoles from eggs, which are laid by a female frog. The eggs are called frogspawn. Tadpoles have tails and gills. When they grow up, they lose their tails and gills and grow four long legs. Grown frogs can jump far with their legs. They have long tongues that they use to catch bugs. They make a sound called a croak. They sometimes live in tree, and some types of frog are capable of making poison. Frogs live all over the world, apart from Australia. Different types of frogs are native to different countries and have different characteristics that relate to the environment of this country. If an overseas species of frogs is introduced to another country, the ecosystem can be hugely affected.
Frog legs are occasionally eaten as food in France, China, and the Midwest of the United States. The killing of frogs has an effect on the ecosystem. For example, frogs eat mosquitoes. If frogs are killed, then there are less frogs to eat mosquitoes, so more and more mosquitoes are born. Therefore, in these areas, there are more diseases that mosquitoes carry, because there are more mosquitoes.
        Frogs have very good eyesight. They bulge out the sides of their heads in order for the frog to see in nearly all directions.  
Frogs also have amazing sense of hearing. You can often tell the difference between a male and female frog by the size of their eardrum, which can be seen behind their eyes. If the eardrum is smaller than the eye, the frog is a female. On males their eardrum is the same size as the eye.
Frogs have very powerful back legs and webbed feet that help them jump great distances, as well as, swim. Frogs even use their legs to dig, or burrow, underground for hibernating. Certain frogs can jump up to 20 times their own body length in a single leap. 
Every different species of frog has his or her own look. They come in many colors, patterns and sizes.

        Frogs need to live near water,have smooth,moist skin that makes them look “slimy”, have a narrow body, have higher,rounder,bulgier eyes, have longer hind leg, take long high jumps, and have many predators.


Crabs are in the phylum Crustacea. They are decapods (ten legs), along with lobsters, crayfish and shrimps. Crabs form an order within the decapods, called the Brachyura. Their short body is covered by a thick exoskeleton.
They are an extremely successful group, found all over the world. They are basically heavily armoured shell-breakers. Most crabs live in sea-water, but there are some who live in fresh water, and some who live on land. The smallest are the size of a pea; the largest (the Japanese Spider Crab) grows to a leg span of 4 metres. About 7,000 species are known.

Structure and life-style


Crabs have very short tails. A crab's tail and reduced abdomen is entirely hidden under the thorax. It is folded under its body, and may not be visible at all unless you turn the crab over. Usually they have a very hard exoskeleton. This means they are well protected against predators. Crabs are armed with a single pair of claws. Crabs can be found in all the oceans. Some crabs also live in fresh water, or live completely on land.


The pincers (claws) of crabs are their most important weapons. They have at least three functions. The pincers' role in eating is to seize and subdue the prey. If the food is a shellfish (mollusc), then the pincers can exert force to open or break the mollusc's shell. Pincers are also used in fighting between males, and for signalling to other crabs.


Crabs are omnivores, they eat almost anything they find. Often this is algae, but animal food is essential for its good health and development. They will eat molluscs, other crustaceans, worms, fungi and bacteria.

Crabs as food

Crabs are prepared and eaten all over the world. Some species are eaten whole, including the shell, such as soft-shell crab; with other species just the claws and/or legs are eaten. In some regions spices improve the culinary experience. In Asia, Masala Crab and Chilli crab are examples of heavily spiced dishes. In Maryland, blue crab is often eaten with Old Bay Seasoning.
For the British dish Cromer crab, the meat is extracted and placed inside the hard shell. One American way to prepare crab meat is by extracting it and adding a flour mix, creating a crab cake. Crabs are also used in bisque, a French soup.


True crabs appear in the fossil record in the Lower Jurassic. They are part of the 'Mesozoic marine revolution', in which a number of sea-floor predators evolved.


The closest relatives of the crabs are anomurans, a crustacean group which includes animals such as hermit crabs, king crabs and squat lobsters. They look a lot like crabs and many have the word 'crab' in their name, but are not true crabs. Anomurans can be told apart by the number of legs: crabs have ten legs, including claws, while the last pair of an anomuran's legs is hidden inside the shell, so that only eight legs are visible.


Isnin, 11 Julai 2011

GrEeN eNvIrONmEnT...

1)  Imagine you are a part of a big orchard with a lot of trees around. How do you feel being cut?
-If I are part of a big orchard with a lot trees around, I felt very sad if I being cut. At first I felt very fortunate because I give protection to people and animals to shelter . I felt very sad. I cannot talk does not mean I cannot feel. I wonder, do they feel what I feel? I was disappointed because they are selfish and they do not think what the effect of the deforestation.

2) What will happen to all the animals which were talking shelter on you?
-Animal which were talking shelter on me are be effected.Forests are natural habitats to many types of animals and organisms. That is why, when there is deforestation, many animals are left without shelters. Those that manage to go through the flat lands and residential sites are then killed by people.
Through the years, it is estimated that there are millions of plant and extinct animal species that have been wiped out because they have been deprived of home. Thus, biodiversity is significantly lowered because of the savage deforestation practices of some people.
Wildlife advocates have been constantly reminding that several wild animals left in the world could still be saved if deforested forests would only be reforested and the practice of slash and burn of forests would be totally abandoned.

3) What would be the surroundings like after you are cut?
-The surrounding will effect by the change in temperatures in the nearby areas. Forests naturally cool down because they help retain moisture in the air.
-Second is the long process of global climate change. As mentioned above, deforestation has been found to contribute to global warming or that process when climates around the world become warmer as more harmful rays of the sun comes in through the atmosphere.
-The ozone layer is a mass of oxygen or O3 atoms that serves as shield in the atmosphere against the harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun. Because ozone is made up of oxygen atoms, oxygen react with carbon monoxide. Such reaction would use up oxygen atoms.
-It follows that when there are more carbon monoxide atoms going to the atmosphere, the volume of oxygen would decline. Such is the case of ozone depletion.
-The third effect to the environment would be on the water table underneath the ground. Water table is the common source of natural drinking water by people living around forests.
-Water table is replenishing. That means, the supply of water underground could also dry up if not replenished regularly. When there is rain, forests hold much of the rainfall to the soil through their roots.

-Thus, water sinks in deeper to the ground, and eventually replenishing the supply of water in the water table. Now, imagine what happens when there is not enough forests anymore. Water from rain would simply flow through the soil surface and not be retained by the soil.
-Or other than that, the water from rain would not stay in the soil longer, for the process of evaporation would immediately set in. Thus, the water table is not replenished, leading to drying up of wells.

4) What change will take place in the environment after you are cut?

The change will take place in the environment after cut is:-

Erosion of Soil: When forest areas are cleared, it results in exposing the soil to the sun, making it very dry and eventually, infertile, due to volatile nutrients such as nitrogen being lost. In addition, when there is rainfall, it washes away the rest of the nutrients, which flow with the rainwater into waterways. Because of this, merely replanting trees may not help in solving the problems caused by deforestation, for by the time the trees mature, the soil will be totally devoid of essential nutrients. Ultimately, cultivation in this land will also become impossible, resulting in the land becoming useless. Large tracts of land will be rendered permanently impoverished due to soil erosion.

Disruption of the Water Cycle: Trees contribute in a large way in maintaining the water cycle. They draw up water via their roots, which is then released into the atmosphere. A large part of the water that circulates in the ecosystem of rainforests, for instance, remains inside the plants. When these trees are cut down it results in the climate getting drier in that area.

Loss of Biodiversity: The unique biodiversity of various geographical areas is being lost on a scale that is quite unprecedented. Even though tropical rainforests make up just 6 percent of the surface area of the Earth, about 80-90 percent of the entire species of the world exist here. Due to massive deforestation, about 50 to 100 species of animals are being lost each day. The outcome of which is the extinction of animals and plants on a massive scale.

Flooding and Drought: One of the vital functions of forests is to absorb and store great amounts of water quickly when there are heavy rains. When forests are cut down, this regulation of the flow of water is disrupted, which leads to alternating periods of flood and then drought in the affected area.

Climate Change: It is well known that global warming is being caused largely due to emissions of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. However, what is not known quite as well is that deforestation has a direction association with carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. Trees act as a major storage depot for carbon, since they absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which is then used to produce carbohydrates, fats, and proteins that make up trees. When deforestation occurs, many of the trees are burnt or they are allowed to rot, which results in releasing the carbon that is stored in them as carbon dioxide. This, in turn, leads to greater concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

5) Message you would like to give to people who are cutting down trees.
Message that I would give to people who are cutting down trees is stop destroying the forests, which are so valuable to us. The forests are a boon to the earth which is bestowed with different natural resources. Extensive deforestation means the increase in pollution, global warming, natural calamities like flood and drought. Furthermore,they should stop to cutting of the tropical forests . Because rebirth of certain new species which would help in the balance of the flora and fauna. There are certain steps to be taken in order to keep the beauty of the nature intact
The people must be provided with certain knowledge about the ecosystem of the earth so that the people know the importance of the trees and stop the illegal cutting of the trees. There should be certain programs so that the children can teach their elders how important the trees are for the earths existence. The children must be taught the importance of the trees because the children of today are the future of tomorrow. Education should not however stop only amongst the school aged children but should be continued to the upper level i.e. the older people should also be taught the preventive measures of deforestation. The education however has become the easiest way to transfer the message. Saving the forests is a worldwide duty of the people. Measures should be taken by the people to save and preserve the forests.
To save the forests, eco-tourism should also be encouraged so that the people feel that forests are important for attracting the tourists to their country.

6) What do you think the use of technology in reducing and minimizing the problem?

I think the use of technology in reducing and minimizing the problem can improve solution of deforestation. For example, recycling benefits to the environment. With recycling, we can get saves trees. As a mentioned earlier, recycling a single ton of paper can save almost 17 trees from cutting of. Deforestation is a major cause of concern globally. Also, issues like soil erosion, acid rain, global warming, etc are directly or indirectly related to it. Therefore, the more you recycle, the more you contribute in making the earth greener.
After that, we also can saves the energy. Did you know that by recycling 1 glass bottle we can save energy that would be sufficient enough to light a bulb for 4 hours! Production of some materials consumes more energy, than recycling the same materials. For example, cutting out trees to create new paper would take more time and energy as compared to recycling paper. The same is the case with steel which takes a lot of energy in manufacturing as compared to recycling.After than that, increasing productivity of cleared rainforest lands is possible using improved technology to generate higher yielding crops.
- Taking advantage of improved germplasm developed through careful selection can produce grasses and crops that will grow on degraded forest soils. While technology may have accelerated the development and impoverishment of tropical rainforests, it will be one of the keys to saving them.

7) In your opinion, blog is able to stimulate environmental awareness among community. Elaborate.

In my opinion, blog is able to stimulate environmental awareness among community:-
  -Blogger who blog can arrange a meeting to discuss a problem that bloggers have a strong influence. For example, discusses the deforestation problem.
  -Blog as a medium advertising.
  -Blog also to some extent to bring awareness to society of environmental damage.
  -Through blog, we can organize a campaign to save our forest as well to give a message to the community.  

Ahad, 10 Julai 2011

mArTiAl ArTs

          In Malaysia, martial arts have become popular. They are many martial arts that people used. Such as Silat, Taekwondo, Muay Thai, Karate, and other than that. Silat was originated from Malaysia. There are many
 types of Silat among Silat Lincah,


Silat Cekak,

and Silat Gayung.

There are hundred of different styles but they tend to focus either on strikes, joint manipulation, throws, bladed weapons, or some combination thereof. After that is Taekwondo. Taekwondo was originated from Korea. If you are learning Taekwondo, you will have self-defense, sport, exercise, and in some cases meditation and philosophy.

Furthermore, Muay Thai from Thailand also martial arts. That is a combat sport that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques.

Finally is Karate. Karate is a striking art using punching, kicking, knee, and elbow. strikes, and open-handed techniques such as knife hands.

Conclusion,so many martial arts in Malaysia that we can learn and practice.

Rabu, 22 Jun 2011


        Fasching is Munich's version of Carnival. Americans call it "Mardi Gras" whilst the British have "Shrove Tuesday" (pancake day). Fasching is carnival season. Originally it was a Pagan festival which came out of ancient Rome or Greece. In recent centuries, however, it has become more associated with the Christian Church. Officially the season starts on 11th November at 11:11am. Things really begin to happen in February or March - 7 weeks before Easter. The Thursday before Ash Wednesday (25.Feb.2009) is known as "Weiberfastnacht", or "Women's carnival night". The following Monday is known as Rosenmontag (Rose Monday). Faschingsdienstag (Carnival Tuesday) is the last day of Fasching. Fasching is celebrated mainly in the Catholic parts of Germany. the climax of Fasching 2009 in Munich is Tuesday 24th February.


        Obon (お盆?) or just Bon (?) is a Japanese Buddhist custom to honor the departed (deceased) spirits of one's ancestors. This Buddhist custom has evolved into a family reunion holiday during which people return to ancestral family places and visit and clean their ancestors' graves, and when the spirits of ancestors are supposed to revisit the household altars. It has been celebrated in Japan for more than 500 years and traditionally includes a dance, known as Bon-Odori.
The festival of Obon lasts for three days; however its starting date varies within different regions of Japan. When the lunar calendar was changed to the Gregorian calendar at the beginning of the Meiji era, the localities in Japan reacted differently and this resulted in three different times of Obon. "Shichigatsu Bon" (Bon in July) is based on the solar calendar and is celebrated around 15 July in eastern Japan (Kantō: areas such as Tokyo, Yokohama and the Tohoku region), coinciding with Chūgen. "Hachigatsu Bon" (Bon in August) is based on the solar calendar, is celebrated around the 15th of August and is the most commonly celebrated time. "Kyu Bon" (Old Bon) is celebrated on the 15th day of the seventh month of the lunar calendar, and so differs each year. "Kyu Bon" is celebrated in areas like the northern part of the Kantō region, Chūgoku, Shikoku, and the Southwestern islands. These three days are not listed as public holidays but it is customary that people are given leave.


        Mardi Gras (Fat Tuesday) is a festival held the day before Ash Wednesday, signifying the end of the Carnival season and the start of Lent. Many cities (especially those with large Catholic populations) like New Orleans are famous for their Mardi Gras.
During Mardi Gras, almost everyone takes part in celebrating with lavish parades and parties. Many different people celebrate Mardi Gras in their own way, some people have small parties and eat many of the tasty pastries and some people have huge parties and celebrate in a big way. Some of the pastries they eat are called king's cake, hot cross buns, punchskis,  tricolor scrolls and thick sugar cookies. There are many more things that other people eat but these are the basic American ones. There are so many different parades and kinds of celebrations.


        The Inti Raymi ("Festival of the Sun") was a religious ceremony of the Inca Empire in honor of the god Inti, one of the most venerated gods in Inca religion. According to chronicler Garcilaso de la Vega, Sapa Inca Pachacuti created the Inti Raymi to celebrate the winter solstice and a new year in the Andes of the Southern Hemisphere. Since 1944, a theatrical representation of the Inti Raymi has been taking place at Sacsayhuamán (two km. from Cusco) on June 24 of each year, attracting thousands of tourists and local visitors.
During the Inca Empire, the Inti Raymi was the most important of four ceremonies celebrated in Cusco, as related by Inca Garcilaso de la Vega. The celebration took place in the Haukaypata or the main plaza in the city. The ceremony was also said to indicate the mythical origin of the Incas, lasting nine days of colorful dances and processions, as well as animal sacrifices to ensure a good cropping season. The last Inti Raymi with the Inca Emperor's presence was carried out in 1535, after which the Spanish conquest and the Catholic Church suppressed it. Some natives participated in similar ceremonies in the years after, but it was completely prohibited in 1572 by the Viceroy Francisco de Toledo, who claimed it was a pagan ceremony opposed to the Catholic faith.
In 1944, a historical reconstruction of the Inti Raymi was directed by Faustino Espinoza Navarro and indigenous actors. The first reconstruction was largely based on the chronicles of Garcilaso de la Vega and only referred to the religious ceremony.


        Songkran is a Thai traditional New Year which starts on April 13 every year and lasts for 3 days. People will celebrate Songkran day by throwing the water or water guns. It is also known as the "Water Festival" as people believe that water will wash away bad luck. But the purposed of Thai adults are; they want people to come home to visit their parents, pay respect to them, and usually bring them a small gift. People go to the temple to pray and give food to monks. They also clean the Buddha images in temples with water and gentle Thai perfume (น้ำอบไทย).
And the legend of the important ladies on Songkran Day is Nang Songkran. The seven daughters of Kabil Maha Phrom. They have their own names, but most of people called them as Nang Songkran or the Songkran Ladies and they rides on the animals. She stands on the animal’s back if she comes in the morning rides on its back if she comes in the afternoon. For instance, in the year 1951, the Songkran Lady named Kimitha appeared on the 13th April at 1 o'clock 17 minutes and 56 seconds in the morning. She reclined with her eyes closed on the back of a buffalo. The time she appears is when the sun first enters the sign of Aries which heralds the beginning of Songkran New Year's Day..